LA COMPETENCIA

L

a facultad y deber de administrar justicia, correspondiente a todos los tribunales del país, sin embargo,  no es posible que un mismo juez o tribunal único ejerza jurisdicción sobre todo el territorio del estado, ya que eso seria imposible, por lo tanto, se hace necesario crear varios tribunales, que teniendo todos ellos jurisdicción tienen un limite para ejercer esta función, que corresponde a la competencia, la cual será determinada a ciertos “factores”.

 

La competencia constituye un límite a la jurisdicción, es aquella que va a determinar la parte de jurisdicción que le corresponde a cada tribunal y juez.

 

La jurisdicción de los tribunales se encuentra determinada por la constitución y leyes, sin importar el caso concreto, ya que todos los tribunales de la republica tienen jurisdicción para conocer, juzgar y ejecutar lo resuelto. En cambio la competencia deberá ser determinada por cada caso concreto. Esto es en cada juicio.

 

Concepto de Competencia

 

“Es la aptitud de un juez para ejercer jurisdicción en un caso determinado”.

(Hugo Alcina)

Es la facultad que tiene el juez o el tribunal, para conocer de los negocios que la ley a colocado dentro de la esfera de sus atribuciones”.             (C.O.T 108).

 

Sin embargo y pese de ser una definición legal ha sido objeto de varias criticas porque desde la visión doctrinaria no es solo una facultad sino también un deber.

Además esta definición adolece de imprecisión porque solo se refiere a la facultad de conocer. De esta manera e interpretando el articulo se sostiene que esta facultad, la de conocer, debe dársele un sentido amplio que incluya también la facultad de juzgar y hacer cumplir lo ejecutado.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clasificación de la Competencia.

 

Natural y prorrogada

Natural

Corresponde a cada juez en atención a la facultad que la ley determina

Prorrogada

El juez o tribunal no la posee en forma natural, pero puede llegar a tenerla por voluntad de partes

 

Propia y delegada

Propia

Corresponde a un juez o tribunal por disposición de la ley y ejercida por dicho tribunal

Delegada

Es un encargo de otro tribunal para determinadas actuaciones dentro del procesa, la totalidad de la competencia no se delega.

 

Común y especial

Común

Poseída por ciertos tribunales, y en su virtud pueden conocer de todo tipo de asunto

Especial

De acuerdo a la ley, solo puede conocer determinados asuntos dicho tribunal

 

Contenciosa y no contenciosa

Contenciosa

La que tienen los tribunales para conocer de asuntos de conflictos de partes

No contenciosa

La que tienen los tribunales para conocer de asuntos donde no exista conflicto de partes

 

De única, primera y segunda instancia

De única

La que se ejerce cuando la ley no permite apelación contra la sentencia

De primera

Se ejerce cuando la ley si permite apelación contra la sentencia. Esta es la regla general

De segunda

La que posee un tribunal para revisar la sentencia dictada por un tribunal de primera instancia, en general recae en corte de apelaciones

 

Absoluta  y relativa

Absoluta

Corresponde a un tribunal en razón de jerarquía. Se determina por factores materia-cuantía-fuero.

Relativa

Corresponde aun tribunal en razón a su ubicación  dentro de una jerarquía. Se determina por el factor territorio

 

Diferencia entre  competencia absoluta y relativa

La competencia absoluta es de orden publico, es irrenunciable, las partes no peden modificarle

La competencia relativa es de orden privado, a las partes le interesa a que tribunal entregarle clase en relación al territorio

El quebrantamiento de las reglas de la competencia absoluta, producen un proceso nulo, que las partes no podran convalidar.

El quebrantamiento de las reglas de la competencia relativa puede acarrear nulidad , siempre y cuando sea oportuno

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